• Principal Investigator
    Associate Professor Bill Nimo

Project Details

Survey of National Attitudes and Knowledge in Envenomation (The SNAKE Study)

The survey is now closed. Thank you to everyone who contributed.


Best practice for the management and treatment of Australian venomous bites and stings has been reviewed over recent years with recommended practice and clinical guidelines issued. Despite this, there is ongoing uncertainty surrounding Australian envenoming management practices, including antivenom use practices in emergency care environments, with a current understanding of national clinician knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of envenoming and antivenom use lacking.


This national survey aims to document current envenoming practice and knowledge in Australian Hospital Emergency Departments.

We will identify acceptability of and compliance with current national, state and territory guidelines for the treatment of Australian venomous bites and stings.

The survey results may lead to further research to identify knowledge gaps, barriers and enablers to support evidence-based national policy review and implementation.


Dr Celene Yap (Study Coordinator)
Professor George Braitberg
Professor David Story
Dr Ronelle Welton
A/Professor Jonathan Knott
Ms Anna Parker
Ms Sabine Braat
Mr Alan Eade
Dr Violet Mukaro


Epworth Hospital
Royal Melbourne Hospital
Safer Care Victoria


ACEM News April 2019: Looking at the issue of snake bites

Pursuit June 2019: Venomous bites: getting treatment right

Research Group


School Research Themes

Critical Care

Key Contact

For further information about this research, please contact the research group leader.

Department / Centre

Critical Care

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