Brain Tumour Biology and Therapies

Research Overview

Gliomas are the most common form of brain tumour and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the highest grade of these tumours. These tumours are characterised by extensive invasion into normal brain tissue, and this feature contributes significantly to tumour recurrence and morbidity. The most common primary brain tumour is the GBM which is classified as a WHO Grade IV astrocytoma. The current standard of care involves maximal safe surgical resection followed by concurrent chemotherapy (Temozolomide) and radiotherapy. Despite this current treatment regime, the median survival of GBM patients is 9-12 months.


A/Prof Kate Drummond, Neurosurgeon

Dr Stanley Stylli, Post-Doctoral scientist,

Dr Andrew Morokoff, Neurosurgeon and Senior Lecturer

Dr Rodney Luwor, Senior Scientist

Dr Alexios Adamides, Neurosurgeon,

Ms Lucy Paradiso, Research Assistant

Dr Chenkai Ma, PhD Student

Clarissa Whitehead, PhD student

Dylan Jones, Honours Student


Professor Tali Siegal (Hadassah Medical Centre, Israel)

Dr Iris Lavon (Hadassah Medical Centre, Israel)

Associate Professor Izhak Haviv (Bar-Ilan University, Israel)

Professor Helen V. Danesh-Meyer (University of Auckland, New Zealand)

Professor Colin R. Green (University of Auckland, New Zealand)

Dr Andrew Morokoff (University of Melbourne, Australia)

Dr Alexios Adamides (The Royal Melbourne Hospital, AUstralia)

Associate Professor James Ziogas, (The University of Melbourne)


Friends of The Royal Melbourne Hospital Neuroscience Foundation

John T Reid Charitable Trusts


Cure Brain Cancer

Brain Foundation Australia

Melbourne Health - RMH Lottery Grant

Research Outcomes

For a complete listing of Professor Kaye's publications on Pubmed

1: Siegal T, Charbit H, Paldor I, Zelikovitch B, Canello T, Benis A, Wong ML, Morokoff AP, Kaye AH, Lavon I. Dynamics of circulating hypoxia-mediated miRNAs and tumor response in patients with high-grade glioma treated with bevacizumab. J Neurosurg. 2016 Jan 22:1-8. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26799295.

2: Bennett IE, Guo H, Kountouri N, D'abaco GM, Hovens CM, Moffat BA, Desmond P, Drummond K, Kaye AH, Morokoff AP. Preoperative biomarkers of tumour vascularity are elevated in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. J Clin Neurosci. 2015
Nov;22(11):1802-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2015.06.013. Epub 2015 Aug 22. PubMed
PMID: 26308396.

3: Morokoff A, Ng W, Gogos A, Kaye AH. Molecular subtypes, stem cells and heterogeneity: Implications for personalised therapy in glioma. J Clin Neurosci.
2015 Aug;22(8):1219-26. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2015.02.008. Epub 2015 May 6. Review.
PubMed PMID: 25957782.

4: Stylli SS, Luwor RB, Ware TM, Tan F, Kaye AH. Mouse models of glioma. J Clin Neurosci. 2015 Apr;22(4):619-26. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2014.10.013.
Epub 2015 Feb 16. Review. PubMed PMID: 25698543.

5: Kaye AH, Morokoff A. The continuing evolution: biology and treatment of brain tumors. Neurosurgery. 2014 Aug;61 Suppl 1:100-4. doi:
10.1227/NEU.0000000000000388. Review. PubMed PMID: 25032537.

6: Stylli SS, Kaye AH. Photodynamic therapy of cerebral glioma - a review. Part II - clinical studies. J Clin Neurosci. 2006 Aug;13(7):709-17. Epub 2006 Mar 29.
Review. PubMed PMID: 16567094.

7: Stylli SS, Kaye AH. Photodynamic therapy of cerebral glioma--a review Part I--a biological basis. J Clin Neurosci. 2006 Jul;13(6):615-25. Epub 2006 Mar 22.
Review. PubMed PMID: 16554159.

8: Stylli SS, Kaye AH, MacGregor L, Howes M, Rajendra P. Photodynamic therapy of high grade glioma - long term survival. J Clin Neurosci. 2005 May;12(4):389-98.
PubMed PMID: 15925768.

9: Stylli SS, Howes M, MacGregor L, Rajendra P, Kaye AH. Photodynamic therapy of brain tumours: evaluation of porphyrin uptake versus clinical outcome.
J Clin Neurosci. 2004 Aug;11(6):584-96. PubMed PMID: 15261226.

10: Rosenthal MA, Kavar B, Hill JS, Morgan DJ, Nation RL, Stylli SS, Basser RL, Uren S, Geldard H, Green MD, Kahl SB, Kaye AH. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of photodynamic therapy for high-grade gliomas using a novel boronated porphyrin.
J Clin Oncol. 2001 Jan 15;19(2):519-24. PubMed PMID: 11208846.

11: Hill JS, Kahl SB, Stylli SS, Nakamura Y, Koo MS, Kaye AH. Selective tumor kill of cerebral glioma by photodynamic therapy using a boronated porphyrin photosensitizer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Dec 19;92(26):12126-30. PubMed PMID: 8618857; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC40309.

Research Publications

1: Stylli SS, Adamides AA, Koldej RM, Luwor RB, Ritchie DS, Ziogas J, Kaye AH.

miRNA expression profiling of cerebrospinal fluid in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 2016 Apr 29:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]
PubMed PMID: 27128592.

2: Ching J, Amiridis S, Stylli SS, Bjorksten AR, Kountouri N, Zheng T, Paradiso L, Luwor RB, Morokoff AP, O'Brien TJ, Kaye AH. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone increases functional expression of the glutamate transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) in human glioblastoma cells. Oncotarget. 2015 Aug 28;6(25):21301-14. PubMed PMID: 26046374; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4673266.

3: Danesh-Meyer HV, Wong A, Papchenko T, Matheos K, Stylli S, Nichols A, Frampton C, Daniell M, Savino PJ, Kaye AH. Optical coherence tomography predicts visual outcome for pituitary tumors.
J Clin Neurosci. 2015 Jul;22(7):1098-104. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2015.02.001. Epub 2015 Apr 16. PubMed PMID: 25891894.

4: Atkins RJ, Ng W, Stylli SS, Hovens CM, Kaye AH. Repair mechanisms help glioblastoma resist treatment.
J Clin Neurosci. 2015 Jan;22(1):14-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2014.09.003. Epub 2014 Nov 28. Review. PubMed PMID: 25444993.

5: Ching J, Amiridis S, Stylli SS, Morokoff AP, O'Brien TJ, Kaye AH. A novel treatment strategy for glioblastoma multiforme and glioma associated seizures: increasing glutamate uptake with PPARγ agonists.
J Clin Neurosci. 2015 Jan;22(1):21-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2014.09.001. Epub 2014 Nov 22. Review. PubMed
PMID: 25439749.

6: Liubinas SV, D'Abaco GM, Moffat BM, Gonzales M, Feleppa F, Nowell CJ, Gorelik A, Drummond KJ, O'Brien TJ, Kaye AH, Morokoff AP. IDH1 mutation is associated with seizures and protoplasmic subtype in patients with low-grade gliomas.
Epilepsia. 2014 Sep;55(9):1438-43. doi: 10.1111/epi.12662. Epub 2014 Jun 5.
PubMed PMID: 24903073.

7: Stylli SS, Luwor RB, Kaye AH, I ST, Hovens CM, Lock P. Expression of the adaptor protein Tks5 in human cancer: prognostic potential.
Oncol Rep. 2014 Sep;32(3):989-1002. doi: 10.3892/or.2014.3310. Epub 2014 Jul 4. PubMed PMID: 24993883.

8: Liubinas SV, O'Brien TJ, Moffat BM, Drummond KJ, Morokoff AP, Kaye AH. Tumour associated epilepsy and glutamate excitotoxicity in patients with gliomas.
J Clin Neurosci. 2014 Jun;21(6):899-908. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2014.02.012. Epub 2014 Apr 17. Review. PubMed PMID: 24746886.

9: Ng W, Pébay A, Drummond K, Burgess A, Kaye AH, Morokoff A. Complexities of lysophospholipid signalling in glioblastoma.
J Clin Neurosci. 2014 Jun;21(6):893-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2014.02.013. Epub 2014 Apr 18. Review.
PubMed PMID: 24746442.

10: Ogra S, Nichols AD, Stylli S, Kaye AH, Savino PJ, Danesh-Meyer HV. Visual acuity and pattern of visual field loss at presentation in pituitary adenoma.
J Clin Neurosci. 2014 May;21(5):735-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2014.01.005. Epub 2014 Mar 18. PubMed PMID: 24656736.

11: Liubinas SV, Drummond KJ, Desmond PM, Bjorksten A, Morokoff AP, Kaye AH, O'Brien TJ, Moffat BA. Glutamate quantification in patients with supratentorial gliomas using chemical shift imaging.
NMR Biomed. 2014 May;27(5):570-7. doi: 10.1002/nbm.3095. Epub 2014 Mar 25. PubMed PMID: 24664947.

12: Atkins RJ, Dimou J, Paradiso L, Morokoff AP, Kaye AH, Drummond KJ, Hovens CM. Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) by the Akt pathway in gliomas.
J Clin Neurosci. 2012 Nov;19(11):1558-63. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2012.07.002. Epub 2012 Sep 19. PubMed PMID: 22999562.

13: Yuen TI, Morokoff AP, Bjorksten A, D'Abaco G, Paradiso L, Finch S, Wong D, Reid CA, Powell KL, Drummond KJ, Rosenthal MA, Kaye AH, O'Brien TJ. Glutamate is associated with a higher risk of seizures in patients with gliomas.
Neurology. 2012 Aug 28;79(9):883-9. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318266fa89. Epub 2012 Jul 25.
PubMed PMID: 22843268.

14: Kaye AH, McCrory P. Does football cause brain damage?
Med J Aust. 2012 May 21;196(9):547-9. PubMed PMID: 22621133.

15: Stylli SS, I ST, Kaye AH, Lock P. Prognostic significance of Tks5 expression in gliomas.
J Clin Neurosci. 2012 Mar;19(3):436-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2011.11.013. Epub 2012 Jan 16.
PubMed PMID: 22249020.

16: Khurana VG, Kaye AH. An overview of concussion in sport. J Clin Neurosci. 2012 Jan;19(1):1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2011.08.002. Epub 2011 Dec 5. Review.
PubMed PMID: 22153800.

17: Shapey J, Danesh-Meyer HV, Kaye AH. Diagnosis and management of optic nerve glioma.
J Clin Neurosci. 2011 Dec;18(12):1585-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2011.09.003. Epub 2011 Nov 8. Review. PubMed PMID: 22071462.

18: Kennard JT, Barmanray R, Sampurno S, Ozturk E, Reid CA, Paradiso L, D'Abaco GM, Kaye AH, Foote SJ, O'Brien TJ, Powell KL. Stargazin and AMPA receptor membrane expression is increased in the somatosensory cortex of Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg.
Neurobiol Dis. 2011 Apr;42(1):48-54. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2011.01.003. Epub 2011 Jan 8.
PubMed PMID: 21220022.

19: Hawthorne G, Kaye AH, Gruen R, Houseman D, Bauer I. Traumatic brain injury and quality of life: initial Australian validation of the QOLIBRI.
J Clin Neurosci. 2011 Feb;18(2):197-202. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2010.06.015. Epub 2010 Dec 15. PubMed PMID: 21163654.

20: Hawthorne G, Gruen RL, Kaye AH. Traumatic brain injury and long-term quality of life: findings from an Australian study.
J Neurotrauma. 2009 Oct;26(10):1623-33. doi: 10.1089/neu.2008-0735.
PubMed PMID: 19317590.

21: Wong ML, Prawira A, Kaye AH, Hovens CM. Tumour angiogenesis: its mechanism and therapeutic implications in malignant gliomas.
J Clin Neurosci. 2009 Sep;16(9):1119-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2009.02.009. Epub 2009 Jun 24. Review.
PubMed PMID: 19556134.